Definition: Teleolos (from the Greek, purpose) and ology (the study of): the study of purpose, argument from design.
Anthropic principle, in cosmology, any consideration of the structure of the universe, the values of the constants of nature, or the laws of nature that has a bearing upon the existence of life. – Enclopedia Britannacia
Basically, the idea that there are a group of properties in the universe that are necessary to substain life and always exist and operate around us. Here are the five we talked about in class, but remember there are over 100! (Sources from Not enough faith to be an atheist by Frank Turek and On Guard by William Lane Craig).
Anthropic Constant Principle 1
Oxygen. Earth’s atmosphere is 21% oxygen, if it was 25% oxygen we would have fires spontaneously erupting (how fun!) and if were 15% oxygen we would suffocate.
Anthropic Constant Principle 2
Atmospheric Transparency. “The Sun is the primary source of electromagnetic radiation on Earth. The Earth is constantly bombarded with electromagnetic radiation (EMR), but before the electromagnetic energy from the Sun reaches the Earth’s surface, it must pass through the atmosphere. The atmosphere protects us from exposure to higher energy radiation that can be harmful to life – i.e. X-Ray and Gamma Rays. As the energy passes through the atmosphere, it interacts with the molecules and particles present in the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, EMR is scattered or reflected, absorbed and a portion of the energy passes through the atmosphere to reach the Earth’s surface. “ Source
Anthropic Constant Principle 3
Moon-earth gravitational interaction. If this interaction were greater than what is is tidal effects would be too severe, if it were less we would have climatic instabilities. Talk about fine tuning!
Anthropic Constant Principle 4
Carbon Dioxide Level. C02 levels higher we would all burn up. If lower no photosynthesis.
Anthropic Constant Principle 5
Gravity. If gravitational force were changed by 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001 percent the sun would not exist! Two analogies for your reading pleasure. Both from same source/quoted and linked.
“If the gravitational force in the universe was altered by 1 part in 1040, the sun would not exist and the moon would crash into earth or sheer off into space. That is extreme precision. However, 1 part in 1040 can be hard to imagine. I don’t have room to write it here, but 1040 is a one followed by forty zeros.
To give you an idea of the magnitude of 1040, the total land area of the Midwest totals 821,732mi2. If you were to take dimes and stack them all across the Midwest up to the height of the moon, you would need 1.8 * 1026 dimes. That’s quite a ways from 1040. If you were to keep adding dimes until each pile across the entire area of the Midwest reached the sun, you’d still only have 7.06 * 1028. Maybe we’re going too small here. If we stacked dimes across the entire area of the United States (3.797 million mi2) up to the height of the nearest star (Alpha Centauri) approximately 4.37 light years away, we would still only have 2.48 * 1034 dimes.” Does God Exist Part 2? Derek Sindt source
Tape Measure Analogy
“Imagine, if you will, that we stretched a tape measurer across the entire known universe, past all the stars and past all the galaxies (by the way, that’s a long way). Now, imagine that the force of gravity is set at a particular inch mark on that tape measurer (Yes, I know that gravity isn’t measured in inches. This is just to give you an idea of scale.). If you were to move that mark one inch in either direction, we wouldn’t be here today.” – Does God Exist Part 2? Derek Sindt source
Irreducible Complexity – Right place, right time, same time
Our bodies are run by moleculer machines (cells to put it simply ) and “These molecular machines are irreducibility complex, meaning that all the parts of the machine must be completely formed, in the right places, in the right sizes, in operating order, at the SAME TIME, for the machine to function.” (Source: I don’t have enough faith to be an atheist, Frank Turek, page 145)